Over time, this process can result in populations that specialise for particular ecological niches (microevolution) and may eventually result in the emergence of new species (macroevolution).
In other words, natural selection is a key process in the evolution of a population.
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Variation exists within all populations of organisms.
This occurs partly because random mutations arise in the genome of an individual organism, and offspring can inherit such mutations.
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Natural selection acts on the phenotype, or the observable characteristics of an organism, but the genetic (heritable) basis of any phenotype that gives a reproductive advantage may become more common in a population.
Natural selection can be contrasted with artificial selection, in which humans intentionally choose specific traits, whereas in natural selection there is no intentional choice.